|Last Modified||Discord Username||Discord Servers|
|Jan. 9, 2023||0xBEN#0001||HackTheBox | TryHackMe
The Dog Church | TheCyberMentor
Infosec Prep | Infosec Knowledge Sharing
Updated the Building a pfSense VM for Our VirtualBox Cyber Range step
- Added a warning to the top for VirtualBox 7.0.x users regarding virtio-net driver issues with FreeBSD 12.3
- Described potential workaround and impacts that will affect people who have followed the lab guide using VirtualBox 6.x
- VirtualBox support claims this issue was fixed in version 7.0.4, but that doesn't seem to be the case based on my recent testing
Looking for my Proxmox Guide?
- Check out @Dewalt’s PimpMyKali script to make your Kali VMs so much better
- gimmesystem in the HackTheBox Discord server for QA testing this guide
You have a desktop – either your daily-use computer or backup computer – you do not want to reimage it, but would like to run some labs on your computer.
Your daily-use computer. You want to run some labs on it and would like a mobile security lab.
What We'll Build
- Virtualized pfSense firewall as the gateway
- Multiple subnets for different purposes
- Active Directory
NOTE: pfSense is acting as the NAT router and firewall for the lab environment. Therefore, pfSense will need to be the first VM to boot when running your lab. After pfSense boots, you can start your other VMs.
Recommended System Specifications
- Multithreaded CPU with Virtualization Support
- At least 16GB RAM – 32GB would be better
- Plenty of free disk space, preferably more than one internal disk
Enabling Virtualization in the BIOS
NOTE: This process is unique to different PC vendors. I am going to demonstrate this on a HP EliteBook 840 G3. Use Google to find the procedure for your computer model.
- Turn on the laptop
- Press the
ESCkey multiple times until you get to the system setup menu.
Warning: you might need to press a different key on your system to get to the BIOS menu. From my HP laptop,
ESC is the key to get to the BIOS.
- Choose BIOS Setup
- Go to Advanced > System Options
- Enable VTx and VTd (For AMD processors, there is a different name)
- Save changes and exit the BIOS setup
To download the VirtualBox installer for your host OS, navigate to their downloads page here:
You'll see a list of downloads based on host operating system. At the time of writing this guide, the latest version was
- If downloading for Windows, click
- If downloading for Mac OS, click
OS X hosts
- If downloading for Linux, click
Linux distributionsand follow the instructions. You can downloading using an
.debpackage, or you can install using your package manager such as
Install the VirtualBox Extension Pack
Once you've installed VirtualBox, I'd highly recommend you add the extension pack for better VM support.
You can download the extension pack file. Once you open the file, VirtualBox should be the default file handler and install the extension pack. You must reinstall the extension pack any time you update VirtualBox!
A Note on VirtualBox Guest Additions
What are the VirtualBox Guest Additions? As you continue to experiment with VirtualBox, you may hear this name come up. Put simply, the Guest Additions are drivers (or software) you can install inside the VM, to enable it to run more smoothly with VirtualBox.
For example, sometimes you may have VM that has a poor screen resolution, the screen doesn't resize, or some other strange issues. You may need to install the VirtualBox Guest Additions drivers to help the VM run more smoothly.
In this lab guide, we won't be using the Guest Additions much, because most of our VMs won't require it. If you use the Kali Linux VirtualBox image provided by Offensive Security, the Guest Additions already come installed.
Please note that all of the steps demonstrated in this lab are being done on a Windows host machine.
Building a pfSense VM for Our Cyber Range
Importing Kali from Offensive Security Images
Configuring the pfSense Firewall
Adding Vulnhub VMs to the Lab
Building the Active Directory Lab
Troubleshooting Your Lab
Creating a Windows 7 Buffer Overflow Practice VM
Adding Another Interface to pfSense
Appendix A: Double NAT Diagram
Learn more about NAT here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wg8Hosr20yw