Free IT and Cybersecurity Resources

I will try to keep this list continuously updated with training and informational resources for different areas that could benefit students and professionals of cybersecurity and IT
Free IT and Cybersecurity Resources
In: Certifications, Windows, Linux, Computer Networking, Code, Web, Attack, Defend
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New to IT or Cybersecurity?

Are you a complete beginner to the field of Information Technology or Cybersecurity? Or, perhaps you have a bit of experience, but are looking for a review of the fundamentals. Either way, I've put together a learning path of high quality and free resources that will help you cement a solid foundation.

In the interest of keeping this page tidy and focused on the free informational resources found below, I've moved the learning path to its own dedicated page.
IT and Cybersecurity Learning Path
In this post, I suggest free resources that newcomers to IT and cybersecurity can use to build a solid set of foundational skills to secure their careers

Informational Resources

Systems Administration

Core Systems Concepts

  • Storage
  • CPU
  • Memory
  • Boot procedure
  • System internals
  • Core directories
  • Filesystem hierarchy
  • Windows Registry
  • Event and audit logs

Shells and Terminals

This is a fantastic history lesson on the way humans have interacted with computer systems. It's a long read, but it is very educational and covers the primitive terminals with punch cards all the way to the current terminal emulators as we know them today.

A Guide to the Terminal, Console, and Shell
The terminal is the result of its history, from the telegram to our terminal emulators. What is the difference with a console? The shell?

Terminal Emulators

The terms console and terminal are used interchangeably to reference the software run by the user to emulate bygone physical terminals. Whether you choose to call it a terminal or a console, this piece of software presents to you the command-line interface via which your commands are passed to the shell.

GitHub - cdleon/awesome-terminals: Terminal Emulators
Terminal Emulators. Contribute to cdleon/awesome-terminals development by creating an account on GitHub.

Unix-like Shells

  • sh
  • bash
  • csh
  • fish
  • ksh
  • sh
  • tcsh
  • zsh
  • pwsh — PowerShell

Windows Shells

  • powershell
  • cmd — Legacy command prompt

Common Command Line Operations

Create, delete, modify files and directories

ls , mkdir , cd , touch , nano , cp , mv , rm , vim , Get-ChildItem , New-Item , Copy-Item , Move-Item , Rename-Item , Remove-Item

Manipulating file contents and text streams

grep , cat , sed , awk , tr , cut , paste

PowerShell: -split , -replace , -join

Managing processes and services

ps , kill , systemctl , service , strace , Get-Process , Stop-Process , Get-Service , Stop-Service , Restart-Service

Installing and uninstalling packages

apt , yum , pkg , pacman , zypper , winget , Install-Package , Uninstall-Package

Downloading files and interacting with the web

wget , curl , Invoke-WebRequest , Invoke-RestMethod , [System.Net.WebClient]::DownloadFile()

Systems Administration Resources

Free Windows Training

Computer Networking

Core Networking Concepts

Networking Tools

IP Configuration

  • ip address , ip neighbor , ip link
  • Get-NetAdapter
  • Get-NetIPConfig or ipconfig
  • Get-NetIPAddress
  • Get-NetNeighbor
  • IP Subnet Calculator

Host Discovery

  • ping
  • arp-scan
  • nmap

Packet Capture and Analysis

  • Wireshark and tshark
  • tcpdump


  • netcat or nc
  • socat
  • netstat or ss

DNS Troubleshooting

  • nslookup or dig
  • /etc/resolv.conf
  • Resolve-DnsName
  • Get-DnsClientServerAddress
  • Get-DnsClientCache
  • DNS Dumpster
  • MXToolbox

Remote Connectivity

  • OpenVPN
  • Wireguard
  • IPsec
  • ssh
  • scp
  • plink.exe


  • netsh
  • iptables
  • pf


  • proxychains
  • Burp (or ZAP)

Computer Networking Resources


Network Address Translation (NAT)

Domain Name System (DNS)




Onion Routing

Free Hands-On Labs


Core Web Concepts

  • HTTP methods and headers
  • Web servers
  • Proxies
  • Directories and files
  • HTML
  • CSS
  • JavaScript
  • Databases
  • Inputs and parameters

Web Tools

CLI HTTP Clients

  • curl
  • wget
  • Invoke-WebRequest
  • Invoke-RestMethod

DOM Inspection

  • Browser developer tools (F12 key)

Content Discovery

  • gobuster
  • feroxbuster

Brute Force

  • hydra
  • ffuf

HTTP Proxies

Web Stack Analyzers

Web Resources

HTTP Fundamentals

Web Development

Web Security

Search Engine Cheat Sheets

Computer Programming

Core Programming Concepts

  • Object-oriented programming (OOP)
  • Data types
  • Variables
  • Flow logic (if/else)
  • Loops
  • Functions
  • Source code review
  • Modifying exploits


  • Read
    • An interpreter reads your input
  • Evaluate
    • An interpreter executes (evaluates) your instructions
  • Print
    • An interpreter prints any output or errors
  • Loop
    • An interpreter loops back to repeat the process

Example Programming Languages with a REPL

  • Python
  • PowerShell
  • JavaScript (Node.js)
Learning to code first with a REPL as a beginner can be highly beneficial, as you can run and change your code on the fly without waiting for a compiler or debugger, so you get instant feedback on your input

Computer Programming Resources

Compiled & Scripting Languages

Overview of Compiled and Interpreted Languages

Example Interpreted (Scripting) Languages

  • Bash
  • JavaScript
  • PowerShell
  • Python
  • Ruby

Example Compiled Languages

  • C
  • C++
  • C#
  • Java

Multi-language Training

Free Bash Training

Free Python Training

L337 Coding Challenges


Offensive Security

Training Platforms

Cheat Sheets

Defensive Security

Training Platforms

Defense Frameworks

More from 0xBEN
Active Directory Attack Map

Active Directory Attack Map

In this post, I share an attack path diagram I've created to aid in preparing for and attempting the OSCP and/or PNPT certifications.
Table of Contents
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