Hunting with Wazuh: Adding Context

In this post, I elaborate on the Log All JSON option in the Wazuh Manager's configuration and how that can add more context beyond just alerts.
Hunting with Wazuh: Adding Context
In: Wazuh, SIEM, Defend, Home Lab, Threat Hunting

Context is Key

Out of the box, Wazuh is a fantastic SIEM solution. It's got most everything a defender could ask for:

  • HIDS solution for log collection
  • NIDS integration
  • Excellent user interface
  • Expansive decoders and rulesets
  • Lots of modular integrations
  • Active development
  • Great open-source community

That said, Wazuh at its default settings, is an alert-focused SIEM. Sure, you can write custom decoders and rules for virtually any event you'd like to alert on. But, that assumes that you know what you're looking for and what you'd like to alert on.

If you're trying to actively hunt for threats, then your ability to hunt is only as good as your alerts. The better way to operate with Wazuh would be:

  • Write detection rulesets for what you know and what you learn post-incident,
  • Hunt using both your alerts and archived events for context

Log All JSON

If you SSH into your Wazuh Manager server, you will find the main configuration file at /var/osset/etc/ossec.conf. The <logall_json> option is set to no by default – and understandably so.

By enabling this option, your storage requirements increase a lot. It is best to enable this option only if you have the storage space to do so. But, what does this option do?

The default operation of Wazuh is to do the following:

  • Ingest logs from agents and analyze against decoders and rules
  • If a log event matches a rule archive it
  • Then, if the archived log is greater than or equal to <log_alert_level> in the /var/ossec/etc/ossec.conf file, log it to /var/ossec/logs/alerts/alerts.json .
  • Filebeat then reads alerts.json and feeds it into Elasticsearch

After enabling <logall_json> the new operation is:

  • Ingest logs from agents and decode
  • Archive them whether or not it matches a rule in /var/ossec/logs/archives/archives.json .
  • Effectively, alerts and general logs alike are both being stored in archives.json .
  • Then, continue to log alerts to /var/ossec/logs/alerts/alerts.json .
  • However, at this point, Filebeat has not been configured to ingest archives.json .

By storing these additional events in addition to alerts, you're giving yourself much more context to find clues before and after an alert is triggered. You give yourself much more room to proactively hunt for threats, as opposed to waiting for an alert to trigger.

Be advised, also that even if you enable logall_json, if Wazuh doesn't know how to decode your log, then it will not archive it. So, you have to have at a minimum have a decoder to read your log event. If the log is in JSON, Wazuh can decode it out of the box.

Log Management

It's also worth noting that you can configure Wazuh to rotate logs in /var/ossec/logs by editing the option /var/ossec/etc/ossec.conf file. However, this is just log rotation, and not deletion.

If you want to delete the logs in addition to rotating them, it is recommended to set up a cron job to do so. For example, I have specified this cron job on my Wazuh Manager server.

# Run every day at 0400
# Find directories older than 30 days and recursively delete
0 4 * * * find /var/ossec/logs/alerts -type d -mtime +30 -exec rm -rf {} \; > /dev/null 2>&1
0 4 * * * find /var/ossec/logs/archives -type d -mtime +30 -exec rm -rf {} \; > /dev/null 2>&1

Archiving All Events

Enable Logall_JSON

  1. Edit /var/ossec/etc/ossec.conf
    • Set logall_json to yes
  2. Edit /etc/filebeat/filebeat.yml
    • Set archive enabled: true
  3. Restart Filebeat: systemctl restart filebeat
  4. Restart Wazuh Manager: systemctl restart wazuh-manger

If you are using OwlH in your environment...
  1. Edit /usr/share/filebeat/module/wazuh/archives/config/archives.yml
  2. Add this processor at the bottom of the file. This will allow us to log events when they contain the line bro_engine, but only when they are alerts generated by our Zeek logging rules. Otherwise, we’d be duplicating raw Zeek logs and custom alert logs.
  - drop_event:
          - has_fields: ['bro_engine']
          - not:
                data.description: "^Zeek.*Log:.*"

  1. Restart Filebeat: systemctl restart filebeat
  2. Raw Zeek logs go to owlh-<proto>-1.x-*, custom alerts go to wazuh-archive-*. See this post where I document the OwlH integration and setting up custom alerts for Zeek protocols:
Wazuh: Exploring the OwlH Integration
In this post, I explore the OwlH integration with Wazuh and the convenience of the centralized NIDS configuration management it offers.

Adding the Index Pattern to Wazuh Dashboards

Log into Wazuh Dashboards (aka Kibana) and open the hamburger menu in the top-left. Then, go to Stack Management and Index Patterns.

Click here
Name your pattern

Save the pattern. Now, when you open the Wazuh application or the Discover application, you should see the newly created wazuh-archives-* pattern in the top-right. This will allow you to search for documents in this index (as opposed to wazuh-alerts-*).

De-Duplicating Logs in Elasticsearch

As mentioned before, now that we've enabled <logall_json>, all decoded logs and alerts are being stored in /var/ossec/logs/archives/archives.json regardless of whether or not they trip an alert. Additionally, Wazuh is still dumping alerts that meet or exceed the <log_alert_level> setting into /var/ossec/logs/alerts/alerts.json.

Effectively, now that filebeat is ingesting both alerts.json and archives.json , we are getting duplicated alerts in Elasticsearch – in both the wazuh-alerts-* pattern and the wazuh-archives-* . This is a poor use of disk space.

Disabling the Wazuh Alerts Filebeat Module

ssh into your Wazuh Manager server, edit the file /etc/filebeat/filebeat.yml , and change your configuration to disable the alerts module:

  - module: wazuh
      enabled: false
      enabled: true

Alerts disabled, archives enabled

What we are doing here is telling Filebeat to stop reading /var/ossec/logs/alerts/alerts.json, thereby discontinuing the writing of documents to the wazuh-alerts-* index pattern.

This doesn't effect any behavior on the Wazuh side, it just stops Filebeat from reading the file and writing to Elasticsearch. So, if you want to re-enable this module, just edit the /etc/filebeat/filebeat.yml file again and enabled the alerts module.

Restart the Filebeat service to effect the changes:

sudo systemctl restart filebeat

What About Old Alerts Indices?

If you log into Kibana, you'll still see the wazuh-alerts-* index pattern. Your old documents will still exist in Elasticsearch. However, no new documents will be written to Elasticsearch.

If you don't already have an Index Management Policy to trim your old indices, I'd encourage you to do so. I've written an article about that here:

Wazuh Index Management Policy
In this post, I show how to manage your Wazuh Indexer indices in order to improve performance and manage disk space consumed by indices.

If you create an Index Management Policy, eventually your old wazuh-alerts-* documents should be tidied by Elasticsearch when they grow stale. But, if you were to re-enable the Filebeat alerts module. Then, new documents would start writing to the wazuh-alerts-* index pattern again.

If You'd Rather Delete the Old Indices Now...

Open the Wazuh Dashboards menu in the top-left and go to Dev Tools.

Enter DELETE /wazuh-alerts-* in the console and press the play button to execute the API call. Since we're no longer interested in the wazuh-alerts-* index pattern, and have since disabled the Filebeat module and stopped writing documents with that pattern, it's perfectly safe to run this API call.

Setting a New Default Index Pattern

When you log into Wazuh, the wazuh-alerts-* index pattern is selected by default. Since we are no longer writing to this index pattern, and are now focusing exclusively on wazuh-archives-* , we should change the default index pattern upon login.

This won't affect the behavior of Wazuh Dashboards, because remember, both events and alerts are being written to the wazuh-archives-* pattern by Filebeat. So, any dependencies that Wazuh has on alerts will still be satisfied by reading this pattern.

Log into Wazuh Dashboards (Kibana) and click the hamburger menu in the top-left. Go to Stack Management.

Choose Advanced Settings
Change to wazuh-archives-*

Click Save Changes at the bottom. Log out and log back in to test your changes.

More from 0xBEN
Table of Contents
Great! You’ve successfully signed up.
Welcome back! You've successfully signed in.
You've successfully subscribed to 0xBEN.
Your link has expired.
Success! Check your email for magic link to sign-in.
Success! Your billing info has been updated.
Your billing was not updated.